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Thus, our study focused on novel CKD biomarker patterns and their impact on the clinical staging of the disease. As a first testing approach, the relative expression levels of proteins were assessed by the Proteome Profiler Cytokine Array Kit for pooled CKD stage serum samples to establish an overall view regarding the proteins involved in CKD pathogenesis.
Among the molecules that displayed significant dysregulation in the CKD stages, we further explored the involvement leac de helmint Dickkopf-related protein 1 Dkk-1a recognised inhibitor of the Wnt signalling pathway, and its crosstalk with 1,25OH2D3 calcitriol as new players in renal bone and vascular disease.
Our results show that the molecules involved in orchestrating the inflammatory response, interleukin-6 IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha TNFαas well as the mineral biomarkers osteoprotegerin OPGosteocalcin OCosteopontin OPNand fibroblast growth factor 23 FGFcorrelate with Dkk-1 and calcitriol, raising the possibility of them being potential useful Hpv vaccine side effects last how long vaccine side effects last how long biomarkers.
These results reveal the impact of different biomarker patterns in CKD staging and severity, thus opening up novel approaches to be explored in CKD clinical management.